Technical Papers from IEEE IEEE logoand AIChE AIChE logo

Back to Ex pageEx logo

Technical Papers from IEEE   These full articles can be obtained through
IEEE via Conference Proceedings Search
Copyright © 1997 IEEE -- All rights reserved
1. The net effect: a detailed impact analysis of a three level classification system on the electrical industry
- Bishop, D.N.; Kuczka, J.H.; Rowe, V.G.

This Paper Appears in :
Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1994. Record of Conference Papers., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Incorporated Industry Applications Society 41st Annual on Pages: 45 - 52

This Conference was Held : 12-14 Sept. 1994                     ISBN: 0-7803-1987-7

IEEE Catalog Number: 94CH3451-2
Total Pages: 317
References Cited: 17
Accession Number: 4834252


     In 1987, a number of Western Canadian users and consultants began to develop a real awareness of the international (IEC) system for classified locations. Since that time, this group of Canadians has spent significant time researching the IEC system. They have developed and implemented a plan to make the necessary changes to the Canadian electrical installation codes and standards to allow Canadian users access to IEC technology. The authors' approach to this paper was to assume that both the North American and the IEC systems for classified locations have been proven to be safe. The paper disregards the unsubstantiated claims and counterclaims made by those on both sides of the issue. Clearly, there are differences between the two systems, and this paper explores these differences. The paper attempts to emphasize the differences between the two systems to allow readers to draw their own conclusions as to which system is best for their applications. A comparison is made between a typical North American installation and a typical IEC installation to illustrate the impact of change to a three-division system.<>

Subject Terms:

     safety; standards; electricity supply industry; health hazards; three level classification system; electrical industry; impact analysis; net effect; Canada; IEC; standards; classified locations; safety; hazardous locations

2. North American hazardous locations: the future
    - Cole, M.; Kuczka, J.H.; Rowe, V.G.

    This Paper Appears in :
    Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1996, Record of Conference Papers. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Incorporated Industry Applications Society 43rd Annual on Pages: 1 - 9

This Conference was Held : 23-25 Sept. 1996                     ISBN: 0-7803-3587-2

IEEE Catalog Number: 96CH35988
Total Pages: 313
References Cited: 15
Accession Number: 5533064


     The approach to the classification of hazardous locations, and the design and installation of electrical equipment used in these locations, is quite different in North America to that of a number of other developed nations. For a variety of reasons, many equipment users in the United States and Canada desire to have the ability to choose between the existing Class, and Division rated equipment, and wiring methods and/or the international rated equipment and wiring methods, in their facilities. The addition of Article 505 to the 1996 National Electrical Code (NEC), and similar changes in process to the Canadian Electrical Code (CEC) to introduce the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) system of area classification is the result of years of effort. Given the dissimilarity between Canada and the United States' electrical codes and standards writing processes, and the attitude of each group concerning the integration of the new system, there will be differences between the two countries for some period of time. The authors review the differences in the processes, provide a comparison of the systems and conclude with a look to the future after the full impact of the new system in each code is realized.

Subject Terms:

     safety; hazardous locations classification; North America; electrical equipment design; electrical equipment installation; USA; Canada; Article 505; National Electrical Code; Canadian Electrical Code; International Electrotechnical Commission; electrical codes; standards writing processes

3. How products will be adapted to the dual hazardous area classification system

- Babiarz, P.S.; Liggett, D.P.; Wellman, C.M.

This Paper Appears in :
Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1996, Record of Conference Papers. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Incorporated Industry Applications Society 43rd Annual on Pages: 11 - 18

This Conference was Held : 23-25 Sept. 1996                    ISBN: 0-7803-3587-2

IEEE Catalog Number: 96CH35988
Total Pages: 313
References Cited: 15
Accession Number: 5533065


     Article 505 of the 1996 National Electrical Code contains provisions for a hazardous area classification system commonly known as the Zone 0 concept. This change in the NEC will allow two separate and independent approaches for using electrical equipment in classified areas. Manufacturers will develop new and modify existing products to meet the standards for both systems. Users must decide if the benefits outweigh the costs of changing not only to the new products but also to new wiring methods.

Subject Terms:

     safety; dual hazardous area classification system; Article 505; 1996 National Electrical Code; Zone 0 concept;
     electrical equipment; standards; wiring methods

4. A comparative review of NEC versus IEC concepts and practices
    - Alexander, R.B.; Kuczka, J.H.; Spiekermann, J.

    This Paper Appears in :
    Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1997. Record of Conference Papers. The Institute of Electrical and
    Electronics Engineers Incorporated Industry Applications Society 44th Annual on Pages: 49 - 58

    This Conference was Held : 15-17 Sept. 1997                     ISBN: 0-7803-4217-8

    IEEE Catalog Number: 97CH36128
    Total Pages: 345
    References Cited: 5
    Accession Number: 5698655


     New Article 505 of the 1996 National Electrical Code/spl copy/[NEC] introduces a concept of zone electrical area classification similar to that of the International Electrotechnical Commission's [IEC] Standard 79-10 [79-10]. This tutorial paper comparatively reviews the most common electrical installation concepts and practices in classified locations as defined by NEC Divisions and IEC Zones. In addition, it makes a comparative review of sections in Articles 500 and 501 to show that the concepts of zone classified installations were already recognized in earlier editions of the NEC for locations classified by division.

Subject Terms:

     standards; 1996 National Electrical Code Article 505; zone electrical area classification; IEC Standard 79-10; International Electrotechnical Commission; electrical installation; classified locations; NEC Article 500; NEC Articles 501; electrical equipment protection; safety; wiring methods; inspection; labeling

5. New area classification guidelines
    - Bishop, D.N.; Jagger, D.M.; Propst, J.E.

    This Paper Appears in :
    Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1998. Record of Conference Papers., Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Incorporated Industry Applications Society 45th Annual on Pages: 9 - 19

 6. The outlook for global unity for hazardous area equipment

7. Cable or conduit-who uses it and why?
        - Babiarz, P.S.; Bradley Delans, W.; Hughes, R.

This Paper Appears in :
Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference, 1997. Record of Conference Papers. The Institute of Electrical and
Electronics Engineers Incorporated Industry Applications Society 44th Annual on Pages: 129 - 137

This Conference was Held : 15-17 Sept. 1997    ISBN: 0-7803-4217-8

IEEE Catalog Number: 97CH36128
Total Pages: 345
References Cited: 0
Accession Number: 5698663

    This paper is a summary of results from a professional survey of people employed in the electrical industry. The purpose is to determine future trends in wiring methods, particularly the use of cabling versus conduit, with special attention to hazardous areas. Trade papers have done a credible and complete job in comparing the economic and technical advantages of installing one wiring system over the other. This paper instead explores why the US market has not rapidly embraced cable tray, particularly in hazardous areas, and the difference in attitude between the US and Canadian markets. Four distinct groups were surveyed: PCIC members from the United States and Canada and nonPCIC members in the processing industry in the US and Canada and the issues addressed are described.

8.  ANSI and NEMA or IEC - A project decision

PCIC-99-1 - "The First Major Zone Classified Oil and Gas Facility in North America".  Authors: J. Kuczka, Killark Electric Mfg. Co.; H Bockle, Killark-Stahl Inc.; W.E. McBride, Arco Alaska.

PCIC-99-7 - "The Impact of the IEC Ex SCHEME on the Global Availability of Explosion Protected Apparatus".  Authors: M. Brenon, Laboratoire Central des Industries Electriques (LCIE); P. Kelly, K. McManama, Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL);  Dr.-Ing. U. Klausmeyer, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB); W. Shao, P. Smith, Canadian Standards Association (CSA).

PCIC-99-8 - "Integrating Global Electrical Design Practices in Hazardous Location - A Philosophy Change".  Authors: M. Cole, Hubbell Canada; J. McQuaker, Candor Engineering.

PCIC-99-9 - "Cold Weather Effects on Hazardous Electrical Installations".  Authors: G. Howell, Cooper Industries Inc.; V. G. Rowe, Ramco Electrical Consulting; W.E. McBride, Arco Alaska.

PCIC-99-24 - "Installation Techniques & Practices of IEC Hazardous Area Equipment". The Nuts & Bolts of a Good Installation'"  Authors: Gerhard Schwarz, CEAG Sicherheitstechnic; Ron Carlson, Saudi Aramco; Paul Babiarz, Cooper Industries; Tom Pearson, ARCO.

PCIC-00-1 -  "Conversion from Division to Zone Electrical Classification - Why and How the World's Largest Oil Company Made the Change". Authors: Ron Carlson, Pat Flanders and Bill Roussel of Saudi Aramco.

Abstract - The introduction in the late 1990’s of the Zone electrical area classification concept into North American standards provided the catalyst for a major international oil Company based in Saudi Arabia to convert from the "Division" to the "Zone" method of area classification.

The Company initially relied on North American standards to purchase materials but, over the years, sourcing of materials, and design and construction services gradually shifted away from North America. This required the Company to restructure their standards and accept materials and installation practices from all over the world. Today, the Company standards accept materials and installation techniques from a variety of international sources.

The Zone classification system was considered to provide the maximum flexibility and safety in hazardous locations. Therefore, it was considered preferable over the Division system from a cost, safety, maintenance and reliability viewpoint. In late 1999, the Company decided to convert from a Division to Zone Classification system.

This paper discussed details of why and how the Company made the change and the impact of the migration on electrical and instrumentation installations within the Company.

Author: Robert Seitz, Artech Engineering
Abstract - The Zone method of area classification of hazardous locations is now allowed in the US, and thus the adoption of the methods of protection employed under IEC are now permitted by application of NEC Article 505. Although the Zone products have been available in Europe and elsewhere in the world, their level of availability and methods of application in the US have provided a unique experience adapting the available products to NEC allowed wiring methods. Completion of the first Zone project in the US provides the first opportunity to see if this is method should be further developed and supported. A description of problems encountered during design and installation, methods used to solve the problems and the end result are presented here. An evaluation of the end result, compared with traditional Division installation and presentation of the areas of change that are yet required to make the Zone method of classification and protection truly viable, are also provided.


Authors: Paul Kelly Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (USA)
Michel Brenon Laboratorie Central des Industries Electriques (France)
Eric Giusti Laboratorie Central des Industries Electriques (France)
Giovanni Hummel UL do Brasil Ltda. (Brazil)
Dr.-Ing. Uwe Klausmeyer Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany)
Kerry McManama Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (USA)
Abram Pogorelsky Testing Certification Center of Explosion Protected
Electrical Equipment (Ukraine)
William Shao CSA International (Canada)
Michael Slowinske Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (USA)
Peter Smith CSA International (Canada)

Abstract - This paper is an update to the 1999 IEEE/PCIC paper titled "The Impact of the IECEx Scheme on the Global Availability of Explosion Protected Apparatus" (Paper No. PCIC-99-07), and will further address the advantages and possible concerns regarding the IECEx Scheme from the perspective of six international Hazardous Locations (HazLoc) testing and certification organizations from Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Ukraine and USA.

The IECEx Scheme is an international certification scheme intended to facilitate global trade in electrical equipment for use in hazardous locations. Such hazardous locations are also commonly referred to as explosive atmospheres, with the equipment for use in such locations, or atmospheres, commonly referred to as HazLoc equipment or Ex equipment. The scheme provides a structured system to achieve global acceptance for explosion-protected equipment designed for hazardous locations. Scheme members declare that they will abolish national differences for product requirements in their countries during the coming years. This international scheme will greatly impact the free trade of explosion-protected apparatus needed for the petrochemical and chemical industry if the scheme members recognize and accept harmonized worldwide International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards. The goal is to develop and maintain uniform product evaluations to protect users against products that are not compliant with the required level of safety. Markets for trade in explosion-protected apparatus are growing as a result of global market integration and industry mergers across national and regional boundaries. The abolition of differences of the relevant national standards is especially important for products used in hazardous locations.
Furthermore, relationships between conformity-assessment bodies, such as testing agencies, can help accelerate the merging of markets. This is the reason to establish a global scheme of accredited certification bodies and testing laboratories. Subsequently, the benefit of harmonized IEC standards will be realized, making it easy to find a product in the global market that users can trust.

Author: Estellito Rangel, Jr. Petrobras

Abstract - After decades of using the National Electrical CodeÒ (NEC) and North American standards to classify hazardous locations according to the National Electrical CodeÒ (NEC), Brazil is now starting to use the International Electrotechnical Comission (IEC) standards.  Because of these revised directives, the electrical installations and designers of Oil and Gas Industry plants have faced the challenge to harmonize the electrical installations between the NEC and IEC requirements.  Considering that the Brazilian Oil and Gas Sector is expected to invest approximately US$ 100 billion in the next ten years [1], this change will cause a huge impact. Although this paper is mainly focused on the Brazilian market, it will discuss very similar difficulties found by other countries in the same process of changing to IEC [2].  As Brazilian regulations also require
compulsory National conformity certification for electrical and electronic equipment used in hazardous locations, these aspects and installation details will be also discussed.


Authors: George Brady, Syncrude Canada Ltd.; Mark Throckmorton, Syncrude Canada Ltd.; Michael Walton,ROI Lighting; Marty Cole, Killark, Stahl

Abstract - Large Industrial facilities are emerging from a traditional lighting concept to advanced lighting technologies within the Petrochemical and Oil Sands Industry. These advancements have allowed facilities to take advantage of cost effective and more uniformed lighting installations. This paper discusses several methods that are being implemented in large Oil Sands plants in northern Canada. Plant re-lamping programs with new microprocessor control. Illumination of large process plants by high mast lighting, Low profile flood luminaries in conjunction with 3-D modelling will be discussed. In parallel to these initiatives new induction lamp technology is being used to retrofit existing lighting where high vibration issues are a concern. A lighting management program of re-lamping was initiated to decrease energy consumption and increase cost effective maintenance. The evolutions to advanced lighting methods for industrial facilities are the main topics of the paper.

Donald Dunn, Equistar Chemicals; John Gardner, EGS/Appleton Electric; Frank Ivester, Constant Power; Richard Mendler, Phillips Petroleum; Michael Toney. Equistar Chemicals

Abstract - Switchracks, for hazardous locations, offer many advantages over site built equipment by reducing labor to install and reducing manpower requirements to design, estimate and track construction. Furthermore, factory built switchracks provide a single source for design, drawings, construction and third party certifications. Switchracks fit many applications where motor control centers are not suitable, too expensive or the locations are too remote and/or congested for other power distribution techniques. The paper will present minimum requirements for switchrack design as well as field experience on the installation and start up, maintenance and additions to switchracks in hazardous locations and safety considerations.


Lorraine Padden - Padden Engineering, LLC
Rick Bried - Shell Pipeline Co., LP
James Dymond - GE Industrial Systems

Abstract – This paper presents an overview of IEEE 1349- 2001, a Guide that assists individuals, organizations, and suppliers with the application of motors in Class I, Division 2 locations, where flammable gases and vapors may occasionally

be present. [1] Three-phase and single-phase AC synchronous and induction electric motors in sizes from fractional horsepower and larger are covered in the Guide. Primary emphasis is on the use of general-purpose enclosures and

precautions against excessive surface temperatures and sparking of rotor bars and enclosure joints. The Guide also provides guidance for maintaining the life-cycle integrity of motors in Division 2 locations.

Existing codes and standards, such as the National Electrical Code (NEC), contain cautionary notes for general-purpose

motor applications in Division 2 areas. This Guide documents industry experience and established practices for the application of general-purpose motors in Division 2 locations and provides guidance for applying motors in these locations.

It is not a specification and is not intended to be used as a specification for purchasing motors installed in Division 2 locations. This paper does not replace the Guide, but should be used to supplement and understand the Guide.

Significant motor temperature information is contained in the Guide including maximum recommended Division 2 exposed

surface temperatures at full load. Manufacturers, users, and other industry experts worked about 8 years to develop this

consensus standard. It was approved by the IEEE-SA Standards.

Rob Roberton - Shell Canada Ltd.
Marty Cole - Hubbell Canada Inc.
Tim Driscoll - Shell Canada Ltd.
Kenneth Martin - Brodwell Industrial Sales
George Morlidge - Fluor Canada Ltd.
Abstract - The paper describes how North American and European installation methods and equipment certified to North

American and European based standards were blended on a large capital project to achieve enhanced safety while at the

same time seeing significant capital and installation cost reductions. The Zone area classification system was used.

This enabled the use of equipment certified to either Zone or Division hazardous location standards. Working with the local

regulatory authority, traditional mindsets were challenged to enable the use of practices proven in various installation codes,

with the fundamental principle of achieving equal or better safety compared to the existing code. The major areas that will be

discussed are:

• Re-certifying Division type equipment to IEC standards

• Using European installation concepts for North American certified cables

• Challenging specific Canadian Electrical Code rules

• Costs savings over traditional approaches are quantified


Giovanni Hummel Borges - UL do Brasil (Brazil)
Paul Kelly - Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
Uwe Klausmeyer - Physikalisch – Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany)
Kerry McManama - Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
Jan Olesen - UL International Demko A/S (Denmark)

Abstract - Certification authorities in the field of hazardous locations (explosive atmospheres) equipment from Europe, Brazil and North America will look at the global regulatory climate as it relates to explosion-protected equipment. These authorities represent European ATEX Notified Bodies, Brazilian INMETRO Certification Organizations, U.S. OSHA Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratories, and Standards Council of Canada Accredited Certification Bodies – in addition to including the Chairman of the IECEx Scheme Management Committee (ExMC), the Chairman of the USNC/IECEx committee, and the Executive Secretary of the Brazilian SCT-Ex committee.


Benjamin Schaefer - Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
Giovanni Hummel Borges - UL do Brasil (Brazil)
David Malohn - Underwriters Laboratories Inc.

Abstract - With technology rapidly advancing, new developments in sensing and process control have increased the number of products using intrinsically safe or nonincendive circuits as their protection technique for Hazardous (Classified) Locations as defined in the National Electrical Code (NEC), Canadian Electrical Code (CEC), and IEC/CENELEC installation requirements. With lower installation and maintenance costs, these protection techniques have found increased favor in applications traditionally requiring explosion proof/flameproof devices. Though these concepts have been in use in

industry for many years, some confusion still exists in regards to the installation of these devices. Following the proper installation requirements is important to the overall safety of intrinsically safe and nonincendive circuits. The incorrect installation of intrinsically safe and nonincendive circuits can result in a system that could become ignition capable. Therefore, care must be exercised when determining the suitability of the combinations of associated apparatus and field devices. Furthermore, it is necessary to follow the applicable requirements in the NEC, CEC, and IEC/CENELEC installation requirements concerning grounding, wiring, separation and identification. The control drawing provided with each piece of equipment provides the necessary information to determine the acceptability of the installation.


Travis Griffith - General Electric

Gabe D'Alleva - ExxonMobil

Bill Lockley - Lockley Engineering Ltd.

Barry Wood - Chevron Texaco

Abstract - Under the auspices of the Standards Subcommittee within the Petroleum and Chemical Industry Committee (PCIC), IEEE Recommended Practice 303 Auxiliary Devices for Rotating Electrical Machines in Class I, Division 2 and Zone 2 Locations has been radically updated to address worldwide requirements. Originally US based, this document is now expanded to include the Canadian Electrical Code, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) and Standards Australia/New Zealand (AN/NZS) regulations. This paper highlights those improvements and serves as a short tutorial into current international codes for the implementation of “sometimes” hazardous electrical components, and is focused for North American engineers working on non-US projects. Included is a general subject overview and in particular, a discussion of similarities and differences between the codes.



Roberval Bulgarelli - Petrobras

Estellito Rangel Jr. - Petrobras

Abstract - This paper discusses technical and legal requirements applicable to explosion prevention in the oil industry that are enforced in several countries. It includes requirements of the European Directive ATEX 137, which is applicable to end users, and related practices documented by experienced professionals in this field.



Robert Potter - Cooper Crouse-Hinds

Donna Lee Hodgson - Shell Exploration & Production Company

Abstract – Lighting in hazardous (classified) locations poses application challenges in Class I, Division 2 areas that require improved temperature classes (T-Ratings or T-Codes). For instance, oil refineries classify numerous areas with a T3 temperature class rating. A 70-watt (W) high pressure sodium (HPS) light source achieves this rating. The often-preferred wattage of 100 or 150 typically obtains a T2A or T2B rating. The following pages explore the uses of restricted breathing to achieve a T3 rating. This maintains the proper approvals for safety, while producing cost savings associated with reduction of material, and subsequently installation costs. The authors will review, through a case study and project cost estimates, the savings and benefits achieved for a 175,000 barrel per day United States east coast refinery. The latter sections of this paper examine a lighting upgrade enlisting the newly available restricted breathing technology. The savings of 48% for reproducing the same illuminance or 24% for producing even and adequate lighting will be illustrated by comparing the cost of this upgrade to estimates of upgrades not using restricted breathing. An estimate of a new installation saving 51% using restricted breathing will be compared to one that does not. It will be described in detail, how these estimates and savings were determined.



Robert Seitz - Artech Engineering

Abstract - Most papers in the past that have addressed issues with Zone Classified areas, have discussed the concept of the three zone classification method, the merits of the methods of Explosion Protection (EEx/AEx) developed for use in these areas or some experience with such installations. It is a large jump to decide to design and install a Zone Classified electrical installation based on the content of these papers. Presented here is a guideline for developing a design for facilities classified by the three zone method, as allowed in the U.S. by NEC (NFPA 70) Article 505. It is intended to help make the choice of Zones an easy step from previous design experience for electrical systems in hazardous (classified) locations. The process of area classification is covered briefly, with some considerations that are intended to simplify the process. The specification and selection of electrical devices and equipment and guidance in the actual use of these is presented. Hints for estimation of materials and labor as well as design time are included. Requirements for the electrical portion of mechanical equipments such as pumps, heaters, compressors and other skid-configured equipments are discussed. The cloud of mystery about zones is dispelled.



John Propst - Shell (Retired)

Louis Barrios - Shell Global Solutions

Becky Lobitz - Shell Chemical Company

Abstract - The 1997 editions of API RP 500 and RP 505 pertaining to the classification of petroleum facilities included a new informative Annex - An Alternate Method for Area Classification. The intent of this paper is to go beyond the development of the alternate method and provide some insight and ideas on the application of the alternate method. The paper will briefly cover the history behind the development of the alternate method. It will then review the application of the method to specific sources of release and compare the results with other methods of evaluation such as the conventional methods described in RP 500/505 and the methods described in NFPA 497. Finally, the paper will describe real life scenarios in which the alternate method has or could be used to evaluate difficult applications.




Patrick Leroux - Total

Abstract - The ATEX (French acronym for "Explosive Atmospheres") directive is law in Europe since the 1st of July 2003. In many ways it is a revolution from how directives have been written in the past. References to European standards (CENELEC) have been eliminated (new approach concept) and the directive is now open to any well established standards including also non European standards for equipment used in explosive atmospheres. Since many countries outside of Europe are strongly influenced by European directives, the consequences of this new directive are very far reaching. Users are confronted with the important task of analyzing the consequences of the directive on the choice and application of electrical equipment and the operation of their facilities. The author presents the experience of a major end-user confronted with this directive. New vocabulary, new marking, and new certification documents require extensive training not only for electrical and instrumentation engineers, but also mechanical engineers since the directive applies also to non-electrical equipment. Topics such as variable speed drives, repairing of equipment are still to day not quite clear and a bit controversial .Also equivalence of Notified Bodies is an area of concern for the Operator .




Robert Seitz - Artech Engineering

Wolfgang Berner - R. Stahl Inc.
Heinz Bockle - R. Stahl Inc.
Gerhard Bruchig - The Dow Chemical Company

Abstract – This paper will cover the approaches to and the challenges of electrical installations for hazardous (classified) locations in petroleum and chemical plants in the USA and in Europe. Contrasts and comparisons of the Division and Zone methods of classification and installation, as well as IEC and NEC wiring methods will be made.




Allan Bozek - EngWorks Inc.

Marty Cole - Hubbell Canada Inc.

Ken Martin - Brodwell Industrial Sales Ltd.

Abstract  -  The risk associated with using a portable cellular phone in a Class I, Division 2 or Zone 2 hazardous location is evaluated.   Experimental trials were performed on a representative sample of commercial grade cellular phones using the guidelines provided in ISA-RP12.12.03-2002 “Recommended Practice for Portable Electronic Products Suitable for Use in Class I and II, Division 2, Class I Zone 2 and Class III, Division 1 and 2 Hazardous (Classified) Locations” [1].  The ignition risks are subsequently classified according to a framework ranking system for ignition sources developed by Rew and Spenser (1997)[2]. The results are used to construct a probability model that estimates the risk of a cell phone igniting a flammable atmosphere in a Class I, Division 2 or Class I, Zone 2 hazardous location.   
All cell phones evaluated did not meet the ISA-RP12.12.03-2002 requirements for a PEP 2 (Portable Electronic Product) device and therefore could not be considered “incapable of causing an ignition under normal operating conditions” as per the PEP definition.  Additional testing and analysis of the high risk cell phone components indicated a very low probability of ignition even under ideal conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation of the probability model estimated the odds of a cell phone causing a fire or explosion in a Class I, Division 2 or Class I Zone 2 hazardous location as being 1.16E-06; or one in a million.



Bharat Mistry  - General Electric Canada

Domenic Somma - CSA International

Abstract – Induction and synchronous motors have been used in numerous applications in the petrochemical industry for many years. They have operated in hazardous areas designated as Class 1, Division 1 / Zone 1 or Class 1, Division 2 / Zone 2. Safety standards governing the use of motors in these hazardous areas have been developed by various national and international authorities with the goal of making the use of motors as safe as possible. Since market forces increasingly make the initial sale price of a motor a key factor in the buying decision, a clear understanding of the selection criteria is fundamental to the safe and economical specification of the motor.

The authors will discuss key design and application aspects of above-NEMA sized motors following North American and IEC standards. This   paper will also cover various protection schemes, good design practices, validation of design and certification. Key differences among these standards will be highlighted to develop an understanding of motor application following these standards.



John Gardner - EGS/Appleton Electric Company

Fred Dixon - Chevron Phillips Chemical Company

Abstract – Like most hazardous certified products, Type X, Y & Z purged controllers and indicators have historically been designed and certified for use in the countries where they originated or intended to be used. This practice has required the individual specifying or purchasing the equipment to select controllers and indicators which meet the certification requirements for the country in which it will be installed. This paper presents a summary of the requirements for purging as a method of protection for Class I, Div. 1 & 2 and Zone 1 & 2 hazardous locations. These controllers and indicators are designed to meet North American NEC®/NFPA standards, the ATEX Directive 94/9/EC and CE marking for the European countries and IEC 60079 Standards worldwide. The paper will also summarize the other methods of protection as they compare to purged and pressurized systems. Installation and maintenance procedures and safety issues for working with purged and pressurized systems will be presented.



Michael King - Cooper Crouse Hinds

Dae Hur - Phillips Lighting

Bob Wisniewski - Cooper Crouse Hinds



Peter Thurnherr - Thuba AG

Gerhard Schwarz - Cooper Crouse Hinds

Heribert Oberhem - Bayer Industry Services

Abstract - The introduction of Directive 94/9/EC in Europe marked the first full-coverage analysis of all possible ignition sources. Against the background of the well-known standards for electrical equipment, an additional series of standards EN 13463-x was hurriedly created that takes the new aspects into account while relying on the successful application of existing types of protection. In nearly all cases, the equipment contains both electrical and non-electrical ignition sources. According to the European directive, all of the iginition sources have to be eliminated. The article takes the inspection lamp for Zone 0 as example. Apart from the electrical part (flameproof enclosure), the inspection lamp also has a non-electrical part. Ignition sources in the non-electrical part, such as hot surfaces, mechanical sparking, static electricity and optical radiation, are dealt with in the article. The most important of these new standards is EN 13463-1 “Non-electrical equipment for potentially explosive atmospheres, Part 1: Basic method and requirements”. This standard describes the process of ignition hazard assessment. The first step in the process is the analysis of all possible ignition sources in line with the directive without any attempt to anticipate possible solutions. The frequency with which individual hazards occur is determined in a second step. Distinctions are made between ignition hazards occurring during normal operation, during expected malfunctions, or only as a result of rare malfunctions. Depending on the equipment category sought (category 1, 2 or 3), rare or frequently occurring malfunctions or perhaps only those occurring during normal operation are covered. This risk analysis has a direct effect on the action to be taken. Besides additional tests, verifications and/or material certifications, a given condition can also be excluded or sharply reduced with the instruction manual. The importance of the instruction manual is increased substantially in this area. A salient function of the instruction manual is to specify the use for which the equipment in question was designed, i.e. the manufacturer is obligated to pin down clearly the limiting conditions for the use of its equipment. The presentation explains the relevant concepts and the ignition hazard assessment using examples for the different categories.



Bharat Mistry - GE Industrial Systems

Travis Griffith - GE Oil & Gas

Abstract - Electric motors have been successfully used in hazardous areas since the National Board of Fire Underwriters (NBFU) recognized the need for special means of protection in 1905. Successor to the NBFU, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) created regulations for Division 1 and Division 2 in the United States1947 National Electric Code (NEC)[1]. Thus, for over 60 years, large fabricated frame motors have been manufactured that are compliant with the requirements of NFPA 70 (or NEC[1]) for Division 2 hazardous (classified) areas. In parallel, they also meet Canadian Electric Code(CEC) Part 1,C22.1 [2] mandates.

For Division 2 motors, there has been no substantive difference between the current NEC[1] and CEC[2] editions and those of the past three decades. However, codes and standards are transcending national barriers in an attempt to synchronize without sacrificing safety requirements. A case in point is the adoption of Zone designations within both the NEC[1] and CEC[2] to varying degrees.

Comparatively, the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60079 series of standards for Electrical apparatus for explosive gas atmospheres has changed drastically in recent years. The standard IEC60079-15[4] addresses the requirements of non-arcing/sparking motors manufactured to meet the safety requirements of areas classified under the IEC/CENELEC rules for Zone 2 areas.

The petroleum and chemical facility environments for IEC Zone 2 and NEC/CEC Division 2 are not different, yet the safety requirements and how the motors are used in these areas is addressed from competing vantage points. These diverging regulations are discussed below.


PCIC–2008–1          The Evolution of a “Hybrid” System by Integrating the Best Concepts from the NEC®, CEC® and IEC®

Marty Cole                                        Hubbell Canada

Tim Driscoll                                       Shell Canada Ltd.

Ken Martin                                        Brodwell Industrial Sales Ltd.

George Morlidge                                Fluor Canada Ltd.

Rob Roberton                                    Shell Canada Limited




Allan Bozek P.Eng, MBA    Member IEEE,    EngWorks Inc.

Vince Rowe, P.Eng    Member IEEE,    Marex Canada Ltd.


Abstract - The properties of flammable mixtures as they apply to a hazardous area classification analysis are discussed. Mathematical formula and application rules of thumb are provided to help estimate the relative density, group classification, autoignition temperature, material flashpoint and the flammability of a mixture. Application guidelines are provided on how to apply the results in the context of a hazardous area classification analysis.





Tim Driscoll, Fellow, IEEE, Shell Canada Limited

Marty Cole, Member, IEEE' Hubbell Canada Inc.

René Leduc, Member, IEEE, Marex Canada Limited


Abstract - Both the National Electrical Code (NEC) [1] and the Canadian Electrical Code (CEC) [2] contain sealing requirements to prevent the migration of flammable fluids from travelling through wiring systems to non-hazardous locations.

This paper will review the need for, the intent and the application of these code requirements. Case studies of incidents will be discussed to demonstrate that significant hazards exist, and how they are effectively mitigated by the code requirements. In addition, product standards can be used to meet the intent of the sealing requirements. CSA C22.2 No. 30 Explosion Proof Enclosures for use in Class I Hazardous Locations [3], and ANSI/ISA 12.27.01 Requirements for Process Sealing Between Electrical Systems and Flammable or Combustible Process Fluids [4] currently exist and IEEE PAR 1673 Requirements for Conduit and Cable Seals for Field Connected Wiring to Equipment in Petroleum and Chemical Industry Exposed to Pressures Above 1.5 kilopascals (0.22 psi) [5] is under development. 

In Canada, the new rules on process sealing have created a situation where process industries must transition to

meeting these requirements with little knowledge or direction.

In Alberta, where there is a massive amount of investment in process industries, the Provincial Regulator in collaboration

with Industry, including Certification Bodies and CEC Section 18 (Hazardous Locations) representation, has:

• Clarified what the new requirements mean, specifically on “secondary seals” and “making primary seal leaking obvious”,

• Provided background information to help answer the question: “Why are these rules needed?”, and 

• Given manufacturers (e.g., process transmitters) a path forward to have their products certified (listed) to appropriate standards.

This Alberta initiative has prompted many manufacturers to pursue certification (listing) of products and is expected to

impact future changes to the code requirements and to IEEE 1673.





Bharat Mistry    GE Consumer & Industrial

William Lawrence    FM Approvals LLC


PCIC – 2008 – 39         Enhanced Communication between field devices and automation systems in hazardous locations


Andre Fritsch    R. STAHL Schaltgeraete GmbH

Robert Seitz    ASRC EnergyServices



PCIC Europe 2008. 5th    Safety- Centered approach to quality of light for petrochemical facilities safety
Author: Boris Viner,   Humatrack SafeLight, PO Box 107, Avon, CT 06001, USA;
This paper appears in: Petroleum and Chemical Industry Conference Europe - Electrical and Instrumentation Applications, 2008. 
Publication Date: 10-12 June 2008
On page(s): 1-8
Location: Weimar, Germany,
ISBN: 978-3-9523333-1-0
Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/PCICEUROPE.2008.4563523
Date Published in Issue: 2008-07-15 09:48:52.0

Abstract - This paper will address the Safety-Centered approach to quality of hazardous area lighting and will provide a unique overview of conceptually new lighting profile for petrochemical industry facilities safety. New lighting technologies hold out the promise of significant improvements of hazardous area lighting. These improvements include a much wider range of lighting capabilities that can lead to direct improvements of petrochemical facilities lighting as well as significant improvements in maintenance and safety. This presentation will also discuss the importance of using the most effective lighting practices for safe use of lights in hazardous environments. In conclusion this paper will demonstrate how by combining the knowledge of the best area illumination concepts with the best installation practices in hazardous environments can result in significant improvements in overall facility safety. It is anticipated that some of the key findings presented in this paper may very well become a breakthrough solution to the important safety related issues confronting industrial lighting in the 21st century.

These full articles can be obtained through IEEE Copyright © 1997 IEEE -- All rights reserved

Technical Papers from AIChE

AIChE's 34th Annual Loss Prevention Symposium (5 - 9 March 2000 - Atlanta, GA) presented a technical session on Electrical Equipment Design for Application in Hazardous Areas with the following five papers:

- Discussion of recent developments on electrical classification - Richard Schwab, Process Safety and Loss Prevention
- The Three-Zone Classification System and the NEC - John A. LeBlanc, William G. Lawrence, Factory Mutual Research
- Standards for testing, listing and design applications - Mr. Mark C. Ode, UL Regulatory Services
- NEC Group Classification of Mixtures - Mr. Edward M. Briesch, UL Hazardous Locations
- Cable and Cabling Systems in Hazardous Locations - Richard J. Buschart, PC & E Inc

Back to Ex pageEx logo

This page last updated on May. 24, 2011